Are smart cities sustainable? The evolution of smart city thinking

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter explores the evolution of smart city thinking in order to have a clear understanding of what is involved in effectively and sustainably implementing a Smart City 4.0 strategy. The chapter illustrates that the concept of smart cities has evolved from the technology driven implementations to Cities as Open Innovation Platforms. These open and participatory platforms facilitate the interaction and collaboration of the city's citizens, government, industry, entrepreneurs, academia, creatives and the social sector so that they can harness their collective intelligence for innovation, experimentation and implementation of solutions that creates real transformational value for the betterment of the city's and its stakeholders. The author also identifies the key dimensions on which a smart city 4.0 concept must be built upon but highlights that depending on the composition of its stakeholder ecosystem, the City will prioritise different dimensions and so each smart city is unique. The chapter builds upon the experience of implementing a Smart City 4.0 project in Waterford, Ireland. Details of the smart city initiatives implemented are illustrates with examples.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUrban Planning for the City of the Future
Subtitle of host publicationA Multidisciplinary Approach
PublisherEmerald Group Publishing Ltd
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9781804552155
ISBN (Print)9781804552162
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2023


  • Smart City 4.0
  • Smart city defined
  • Smart city dimensions
  • Smart city ecosystem
  • Smart city evolution
  • Smart city open innovation platforms


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