CFD Investigation of a Co-Flow Nozzle for Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing Applications

Amit Kumar Sharma, Ashish Vashishtha, Dean Callaghan, Srinivasan Rao Bakshi, M. Kamaraj, Ramesh Raghavendra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This current work evaluates the efficacy of a co-flow nozzle for cold spray applications with the aim of mitigating nozzle clogging issues, which can occur during long-duration operations, by replacing the solid wall of a divergent nozzle section with an annular co-flow fluid boundary. Simulations were conducted on high-pressure nitrogen flowing through convergent–divergent (C–D) axisymmetric nozzles, with a stagnation pressure of 6 MPa and a stagnation temperature of 1273 K. In these simulations, Inconel 718 particles of varying sizes (15 µm to 35 µm) were modeled using a 2-way Lagrangian technique, and the model’s accuracy was confirmed through validation against experimental results. An annular co-flow nozzle with a circular cross section and straight passage covering the primary C–D nozzle has been designed and modeled for cold spray application. Co-flow was introduced to the reduced nozzle length to compensate for particle velocity loss at higher operating conditions. It was found that co-flow facilitates momentum preservation for primary flow by providing an annular gas boundary, resulting in increased particle speed for a longer axial distance beyond the nozzle exit of the reduced divergent length nozzle. The particle acceleration performance of the reduced divergent section nozzle, when combined with co-flow, is comparable to the original length nozzle.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2024


  • cold gas dynamic spraying
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • nozzle design
  • particle velocity


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