Last planner® system and percent plan complete: An examination of trade contractor performance

William Power, Darrin Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Research Question: What are the project performance differences between Irish construction firms that have adopted Lean thinking and practices and those that have not? Purpose: This study explores Percent Plan Complete (PPC) as part of the application of Last Planner® System (LPS) across two concurrent capital projects in Ireland. It examines commonalities and differences between trade contractors’ PPC, and it identifies areas of improvement for implementation on future projects. Research Method: Mixed-methods approach encompassing critical literature review, site documentation data-analysis, focus groups, and semi-structured purposeful interviews. Findings: Lean Construction-oriented contractor selection, early engagement of trades in the design process, implementation of all functions of LPS, education and training in Lean, increased modularization and prefabrication, and embracing technological advances are posited as areas for focused improvement. Limitations: This study is limited to examination of PPC data from two concurrent Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management, Validation (EPCMV) Projects. Implications: Irish construction firms should adopt Lean thinking and practices to provide added value on capital projects. There is a need for further studies on the PPC performances and reasons for non-completion (RNC) of trade contractors across multiple projects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-146
Number of pages16
JournalLean Construction Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Ireland
  • Last Planner System
  • Lean Construction
  • Percent Plan Complete
  • Reasons for Non-Completion


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