Review of battery thermal management systems in electric vehicles

Foo Shen Hwang, Thomas Confrey, Colin Reidy, Dorel Picovici, Dean Callaghan, David Culliton, Cathal Nolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Lithium-ion batteries are the most commonly used battery type in commercial electric vehicles due to their high energy densities and ability to be repeatedly charged and discharged over many cycles. In order to maximize the efficiency of a li-ion battery pack, a stable temperature range between 15 °C to 35 °C must be maintained. As such, a reliable and robust battery thermal management system is needed to dissipate heat and regulate the li-ion battery pack's temperature. This paper reviews how heat is generated across a li-ion cell as well as the current research work being done on the four main battery thermal management types which include air-cooled, liquid-cooled, phase change material based and thermo-electric based systems. Additionally, the strengths and weaknesses of each battery thermal management type is reviewed in this study. It was determined that air cooled systems are suited for short-distance travel electric vehicles, liquid cooled are for electric vehicles that require long-distance travel, larger battery packs and for high thermal loads, phase change material based are for electric vehicles with constant thermal loads and stable ambient temperatures and thermo-electric battery thermal management systems are best best suited in conjunction with the other types for better control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114171
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 01 Mar 2024


  • Air cooling
  • Battery thermal management
  • Liquid cooling
  • PCM cooling
  • Thermo-electric


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