Whey protein microgels for stabilisation of foams

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Rheological, foaming and foam textural properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) microgels formed via
cold-set gelation were investigated and compared with those of native WPI foams. The effect of CaCl2
concentration and cross-linking time on microgel formation was studied assessing particle size, rheology
and foamability. Foams, produced by mechanical whipping, were assessed by overrun, stability and
texture. WPI had lower viscosity than the microgels, producing foams with greater overrun. For
microgels, higher concentrations of CaCl2 formed smaller particles and decreased microgel viscosity,
causing higher overrun. Increasing cross-linking time from 0 to 24 h significantly (P < 0.05) increased G0
and G00 of the microgels, resulting in decreased overrun. Native WPI foams drained within 60 min. In
contrast, negligible amounts of liquid drained from microgel foams, which remained stable for >2 years.
This demonstrates that WPI microgels can be used as a novel functional application for creating ultra-stable foams for use in the food industry.
Original languageEnglish (Ireland)
JournalInternational Dairy Journal
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2022


  • foam
  • whey protein
  • vitamin D
  • microgels
  • stabilisation

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